In 1910, Nippon Columbia Co., Ltd. (originating from “Nippon Chikuonki Shokai” – Japan Recorders Corporation) was established by Frederick Whitney Horn. Horn was a U.S.-born trader engaged in importing machine tools and recorders in Yokohama since 1896. In an attempt to commercialize records and recorders, he initiated the "Japan-U.S. Recorders Manufacturing" in 1907 and constructed a special-purpose factory to begin the manufacturing of recorders. These recorders, equipped with a wine glass-shaped speaker commenced the sales of single-side disc records and gramophone players.